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element.

Let's revisit that example for a moment:

Seems a little redundant, doesn't it? After all, you have to type in the same pair of values twice. Fortunately, CSS offers an easy way to avoid this.

Sometimes,the values you're entering for margin get a little repetitive:

A:hover {font-size: 200%;}

In theory, a user agent would have to double the size of anchor textas the pointer hovers over it, which could well cause major redisplayissues. An author could cause similar problems by declaring thatTEXTAREA elements should change their size whenthey are in focus. User agents are not required to reflow thedocument based on styles assigned to these pseudo-elements, althoughsome may do so -- it remains to be seen.

It's also possible to set the top and bottom margins of ablock-level element to be auto. If either of theseproperties is set to auto, it is reset to0 (zero), effectively removing any top or bottommargin from the element box, as shown in Figure 8-5. The lack of any space between the borders ofeach paragraph is a result of auto beingreinterpreted as zero:

P {margin-top: auto; margin-bottom: auto;}

App server developers are not restricted to using HTTP, they can transmit and recieve XML information using simple remote CORBA objects and RMI objects. The key is that by using XML, it makes these remote services or objects easier to build. And, by sticking with XML, any one of these technologies can be used in your design of your app server. You can use whatever technology is most appropriate to getting the job done, knowing that all the information flows as XML and can be processed by any part of the system. The reason Java object serialization did not achieve this is because it encodes object data to a binary format that is dependent on too many things (like the JVM version, and the existence of classes when things are deserialized, etc). XML is not limited by any of these restrictions (or problems), which makes it much easier to create systems that allow XML information to flow between different subsystems. Also by relying only on the data, large portions of the system can be replaced with better or different implementations for future-readiness.

App servers traditionally give their client apps access to information in remote databases, remote file systems, remote object repositories, remote web resources, and even other app servers. All these information sources don't even need to reside on the machine that hosts the app server. These remote resources may be on other machines on the Intranet or the Internet. Using Java and XML, RMI, JDBC, CORBA, JNDI, Servlet and Swing, you can create app servers that can integrate all kinds of remote and local information resources, and client apps that allow you to remotely or locally access this information from the app server.

In the future, with publicly available DTDs that are standardized for each vertical industry, XML based app servers will become very popular. Also when XML schema repositories become available and widely used, app servers will be able to take on a new role and provide application services that are not offered now. Companies will need to share information with other companies in related fields, and each company might have a different software system in which all their data is housed. By agreeing upon a set of DTDs or schemas (encoded in XML), these companies can exchange information with each other regardless of what systems they are using to store this information. If their app servers can exchange XML documents (based on some shared DTD or schema), then these disparate app servers can understand each other and share information. One of the uses for XML foreseen by the W3C is just this, vertical industries (like insurance and health care) creating sets of DTDs and schemas that all companies in the industry agree upon. Then these companies' app servers can talk to each other using some popular protocol (like HTTP or CORBA/IIOP) to exchange information between each other. This has the potential to save a lot of time and money in the daily business operations of these companies.