Book Home Thursday 31st of July 2014 07:21:38 AM Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive GuideSearch this book languages on their own. Instead, they have to rely on documentmarkup, such as the lang attribute in HTML:

<P lang="en">This paragraph is in English.</P><P lang="fr">Ce paragraphe est en fran&ccedil;ais.</P>

The results are shown in Figure 10-10.

Figure 10-10

Figure 10-10. Changing styles based on language

Even if this isn't something you're likely to use often,it can still come in very handy. For example, you could define stylesto apply to entire documents:

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Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.

Web-based apps are very deployable, since they don't require special Java VMs to be installed on the client side, or any other special plug ins, if the creator of the web-based app relies solely on HTML. Unfortunately, this can restrict the level of service that can be offered by a web-based app when compared to the functionality offered by custom clients of an app server, but they are a good compromise when it comes to providing web-based access to your information. In fact, in a real world scenario, both a web-based app and app server may be used together, in order to provide your customers access to their information. In an Intranet setting, you might deploy the clients that come with the app server, and in an Internet setting it would be better to deploy a web-based app that sits on top of this app server, and gives your customers (relatively) limited access to their data over the web (via a simple web browser).

Web-based apps and app servers integrate very well, and this is another reason why Java and XML make a powerful combination for developing systems that give your customers access to their information from anywhere, using any browser over the web. In the future, you can imagine various different web-based apps servicing different kinds of clients, e.g. web browsers on desktops, web browsers on PDAs, and web browsers on all kinds of different consumer electronics devices. By keeping your information structured in a pure way (by using XML), and by allowing access to this information through app servers, you can write many different web-based apps that render this information by customizing it uniquely for each different device that is allowed access to this information. This is more a more scalable solution that storing all this information in web pages, even if these web pages are dynamically generated. So you can have one app server that stores all the data in XML format. You can write a web-based app (which sits on top of this app-server) that allows PalmPilots to access this information over the web. You can write another web-based app (that also sits on top of the same app server) that allows conventional web browsers to access this information over the web. XML and Java have the potential to make this truly platform independent and device independent computing a reality.

API Coverage per category

All these application categories sound very exciting, but what APIs are involved in implementing such systems? I have compiled a list of the most frequently used APIs used for each of these application categories. This list is by no means exhaustive or comprehensive, this list should be useful for most of your application development needs. Table 1 contains a list of APIs most likely needed for each application category.

cause the background image to be placed in the top right corner of the element. Let's go back to the small yin-yang symbol:

BODY {background-image: url(yinyang.gif);
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: top right;}

Incidentally, the result, shown in Figure 6-37, would have been exactly the same had the position been declared as right top. When using the position keywords, they can appear in any order, so long as there are

By taking the lowest common denominator approach, by being web enabled, protocol independent, network independent, platform independent and extensible, XML makes it possible for new systems and old systems (that are all different) to communicate with each other. Encoding information in plain text with tags is better than using propietary and platform dependent binary formats.

Vision

XML provides solutions for problems that have existed for the past 20 years. With most applications and software services using the Internet as a target platform for deployment, XML could not have come at a better time. With the web becoming so popular, a new paradigm of computing has emerged for which XML supplies one of the most important pieces, platform, vendor and application neutral data. Regardless of the programming language used to process XML, it will enable this new networked computing world.

Java is also a key component of this new paradigm. On the server side, by working with XML, it can more naturally integrate legacy systems and services. With XML, Java can do what it does best, work very well on the server side, and web (and Internet) enable software systems.

  • For nonroot elements that are not absolutely positioned, thecontaining block for an element is set as the content edge of thenearest block-level ancestor. This is true even in relativepositioning, although it might not seem so at first.

  • For nonroot elements that are absolutely positioned using aposition of absolute, the

    Figure 8-4

    Figure 8-4. One way to handle a short height on a tall element

    In practice, most browsers will not do this. They will instead simplyincrease the height of the element, as though the value ofheight had been set to auto.This is permitted under CSS1, which states that browsers can ignoreany value of height other thanauto if an element is not a replaced element suchas an image. UnderCSS2, it is possible to set up a