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Index: U

rgb(100%,80%,0%). It has the effect of setting the color of the text in the element, as shown in Figure 6-1:

<P STYLE="color: gray;">This paragraph has a gray foreground.</P>
<P>This paragraph has the default foreground.</P>
Figure 6-1

Figure 6-1. Declared color versus default color


In Figure 6-1, the default foreground color is black. That doesn't have to be the case, since users might have set their browsers (or other user agents) to use different foreground

U element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
UA (see user agent)
underlining: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
changing color of: Weird decorations
removing from hyperlinks: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
turned off by browsers: Weird decorations
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): 3.5. CSS2 Units
Uniform Resource Locators (see URLs)
units: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
(see also length units; CSS2 units)
for aural style sheets: 3.5. CSS2 Units
avoiding mixing: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
color: 3.6. Summary
universal selector: Universal selector
unordered lists: 7.7.1. Types of Lists
unvisited anchors: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
uppercase text: 4.1.5. Text Transformation
upright text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): 3.5. CSS2 Units
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators): 3.4. URLs
HREF attribute and: LINK attributes
referring to in style sheets: 3.4. URLs
specifying for images: 6.2.1. Background Images
user agent (UA): 2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
(see also browsers)
users, selecting alternate style sheets: Alternate style sheets

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6.1.2. Background Color

Ina fashion very similar to setting theforeground color, it's possible to declare a color for thebackground of an element. For this, you use the property of XML, which has no such hierarchy, display is indispensable.

In CSS2, the range of values for display is dramatically expanded. See Chapter 10, "CSS2: A Look Ahead", for more details.


.hide {display: none;}


block | inline | list-item | none

Figure 6-5

Figure 6-5. Setting different colors for different hyperlink classes

This sort of thing simply isn't possible with the old BODY attributes. Furthermore, if you're going to use the BODY attributes, you have to define them in each and every document. If you ever decide to change those values ...well, you have a lot of files to edit, don't you? On the other hand, if you set up these colors as an external style sheet, and then link all of your pages to the style sheet, then you only have to edit one file in order to change the text colors of every last one of your pages.

So let's say we want all first-level headings to be maroon. Thebest declaration would be:

H1 {color: maroon;}

Simple, straightforward, and difficult to forget. It doesn'tget much better than that. Here are a few more examples:

H1 {color: gray;}H2 {color: silver;}H3 {color: black;}