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Index: U

U element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
UA (see user agent)
underlining: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
changing color of: Weird decorations
removing from hyperlinks: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
turned off by browsers: Weird decorations
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): 3.5. CSS2 Units
Uniform Resource Locators (see URLs)
units: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
(see also length units; CSS2 units)
for aural style sheets: 3.5. CSS2 Units
avoiding mixing: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
color: 3.6. Summary
universal selector: Universal selector
unordered lists: 7.7.1. Types of Lists

5.4.1. Fonts with Style

font-style is very simple: it's used to select between normal text, italic text, and oblique text. That's it! The only complications are in recognizing the difference between italic and oblique text and knowing why browsers don't always give you a choice anyway.

unvisited anchors: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
uppercase text: 4.1.5. Text Transformation
upright text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): 3.5. CSS2 Units
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators): 3.4. URLs
HREF attribute and: LINK attributes
referring to in style sheets: 3.4. URLs
specifying for images: 6.2.1. Background Images
user agent (UA): 2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
(see also browsers)
users, selecting alternate style sheets: Alternate style sheets

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Figure 6-3

Figure 6-3. Replacing BODY attributes with CSS

While this may seem like a lot of extra typing, consider that using the old method of BODY attributes, you could only make changes at the document level. For example, if you wanted some links to be medium gray and others a relatively dark gray, you couldn't do that with the BODY attributes. Instead, you'd have to use <FONT COLOR="#666666"> on every single anchor that needed to be relatively dark. Not so with CSS; all you need to do is add a class to all anchors that need to be this shade of gray and

P.clear {visibility: hidden;}
P.clear EM {visibility: visible;}

As for visbility: collapse, this value is used in CSS table rendering, which isn't covered in this book because it wasn't well implemented as the book was being written. According to the CSS2 specification, collapse has the same meaning as hidden if it is used on nontable elements. From a semantic standpoint, this seems somewhat confusing (since

P {margin-left: 100px; margin-right: 100px; width: 100px;}

It will then evaluate to 200px , as shown in Figure 8-12.

Figure 8-12

Figure 8-12. Overriding the margin-right setting


Note that margin-right is forced to beauto only for left-to-right languages such asEnglish. In right-to-left languages, everything gets flipped around,so margin-left is forced to beauto, not margin-right. This is

BODY {background-image: url(yinyang.gif);background-repeat: repeat-y;}

As Figure 6-29 demonstrates, the image is simplyrepeated along the y-axis (that is, vertically) from its startingposition -- in this case, the top left corner of the browserwindow.

Figure 6-29

Figure 6-29. Tiling along the vertical axis

In effect, there is a repeated column in the background, and there isonly one such column. Should you want two columns of symbols in this