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Symbols | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P to the right, or 1 em below, the content area of the element.

Further compounding the problem is that rect(...) only accepts length units and auto. The addition of percentage units as valid rect(...) values would go a long way toward improving things, and hopefully a future version of CSS will add this capability.

This property can be used to clip the element with a simple | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Index: U

U element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
UA (see user agent)
underlining: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
changing color of: Weird decorations
removing from hyperlinks: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
turned off by browsers: Weird decorations
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): 3.5. CSS2 Units
Uniform Resource Locators (see URLs)
units: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
(see also length units; CSS2 units)
for aural style sheets: 3.5. CSS2 Units
avoiding mixing: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
color: 3.6. Summary
universal selector: Universal selector
unordered lists: 7.7.1. Types of Lists
unvisited anchors: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
uppercase text: 4.1.5. Text Transformation
upright text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): 3.5. CSS2 Units
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators): 3.4. URLs
HREF attribute and: LINK attributes
referring to in style sheets: 3.4. URLs
specifying for images: 6.2.1. Background Images
user agent (UA): 2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
(see also browsers)
users, selecting alternate style sheets: Alternate style sheets

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immediately follows another such element in the document'slayout. This was discussed in the previous chapter, using thisexample:

LI {margin-top: 10px; margin-bottom: 20px;}

Padding and borders, where they exist, are never collapsed. Ifneither is declared, then both will default to 0(zero). This assumes that no style is set for the border. If a borderstyle is set, then the value of border-widthdefaults to medium , not zero. The exact width ofAll of the advantages of XML outlined so far all make interoperability possible. This is one of the most important requirements for XML, to enable disparate systems to be able to share information easily.

By taking the lowest common denominator approach, by being web enabled, protocol independent, network independent, platform independent and extensible, XML makes it possible for new systems and old systems (that are all different) to communicate with each other. Encoding information in plain text with tags is better than using propietary and platform dependent binary formats.


XML provides solutions for problems that have existed for the past 20 years. With most applications and software services using the Internet as a target platform for deployment, XML could not have come at a better time. With the web becoming so popular, a new paradigm of computing has emerged for which XML supplies one of the most important pieces, platform, vendor and application neutral data. Regardless of the programming language used to process XML, it will enable this new networked computing world.

Java is also a key component of this new paradigm. On the server side, by working with XML, it can more naturally integrate legacy systems and services. With XML, Java can do what it does best, work very well on the server side, and web (and Internet) enable software systems.

have uneven padding and H2 elements to have regular padding, as shownin Figure 7-57:

H1 {padding: 10px 0.25em 3ex 3cm;} /* uneven padding */H2 {padding: 0.5em 2em;} /* values replicate to the bottom and left sides */
Figure 7-57

Figure 7-57. Uneven padding

It's a little tough to see the padding, though, so let'sadd a background color, as shown in Figure 7-58:

H1 {padding: 10px 0.25em 3ex 3cm; background: silver;}
document. The center could be two or three "screens"below the beginning of the document, or just far enough down to pushmuch of the background image beyond the bottom of the browser window,as shown in Figure 6-53.

Figure 6-53

Figure 6-53. The background image appears too low to be seen fully

Furthermore, even assuming that the background image is initiallyvisible, it always scrolls with the document. Perhaps you don'twant to see what Figure 6-54 depicts: