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Index: U

U element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
UA (see user agent)
underlining: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
changing color of: 4.1.6.1. Weird decorations
removing from hyperlinks: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
turned off by browsers: 4.1.6.1. Weird decorations
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): 3.5. CSS2 Units
page by means of a server-side include. Includes are described in much greater detail in Web Design in a Nutshell, by Jennifer Niederst, and Apache: The Definitive Guide, by Ben Laurie and Peter Laurie, both published by O'Reilly and Associates.

Uniform Resource Locators (see URLs)
units: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
(see also length units; CSS2 units)
for aural style sheets: 3.5. CSS2 Units
avoiding mixing: 11.1.3. Case 3: Putting a Magazine Article Online
color: 3.6. Summary
universal selector: 10.2.1.1. Universal selector
unordered lists: 7.7.1. Types of Lists
unvisited anchors: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
uppercase text: 4.1.5. Text Transformation
upright text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): 3.5. CSS2 Units
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators): 3.4. URLs
HREF attribute and: 1.4.1.1. LINK attributes
referring to in style sheets: 3.4. URLs
specifying for images: 6.2.1. Background Images
user agent (UA): 2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
(see also browsers)
users, selecting alternate style sheets: 1.4.1.2. Alternate style sheets


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easy to select alternate style sheets, assuming that they can do soat all. Should a browser be able to use alternate style sheets, itwill use the values of the TITLE attributes togenerate a list of style alternatives. So you could write thefollowing:

<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css"HREF="sheet1.css" TITLE="Default"><LINK REL="alternate stylesheet" TYPE="text/css"HREF="bigtext.css" TITLE="Big Text">

Here, the width of the element is effectively 60% the width of its containing block.

As wonderful as all of this is, there arises a serious question. Suppose you have a positioned element that you don't want to be any smaller than a certain size? Consider the following styles:

top: 10%; bottom: 20%; left: 50%; right: 10%;

Thus the height is 70%, and the width 40% of the containing{line-height: 24pt;} means that the minimum height for each line box is 24 points. Technically, the only way content will inherit this line height is if it is inherited by an inline element. Most text isn't contained by an inline element. Thus, if we pretend that each line is contained by the fictional LINE element, then the model works out very nicely.

Figure 9-21

Figure 9-21. Setting a "change bar" with absolute positioning

However, maybe we'd like to place the change marker next to whatever line was changed. In that case, we need to make only one small alteration to our styles, and we'll get the result shown in Figure 9-22:

SPAN.change {position: absolute; top: static-position; left: -5em; width: 4em;
font-weight: bold;}
P {margin-left: 5em; position: relative;}

BODY {background-image: url(bigyinyang.gif);background-position: -150px -100px;}

So, with the background repeating, we can see from Figure 6-48 that the tiling pattern starts with theposition specified by background-position. Thisfirst image is known as the originimage , and it's very important tounderstanding the next section.

Figure 6-48

Figure 6-48. Use of the background-position property sets the origin of the tiling pattern