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Index: S

S element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
sample projects using CSS: 11. CSS in Action
sans serif fonts: 5.1. Font Families
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG): 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope
scaling factor
absolute font sizes: 5.3.1. Absolute Sizes
line height and: 4.1.2. The Height of Lines
scaling line heights: Scaling the line heights
scrollbars: Overflow
block-level elements and: Height
selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
class: 2.3. Class and ID Selectors
2.3.1. Class Selectors
CSS2: 10.2. CSS2 Selectors
grouping: 2.2.1. Grouping Selectors
ID: 2.3. Class and ID Selectors
2.3.2. ID Selectors
pseudo-class: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
pseudo-element: 2.4.2. Pseudo-Element Selectors
semicolon (;) terminating declarations: 2.1.3. Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
serif fonts: 5.1. Font Families
servers, external style sheets and: 11.2.11. Serving CSS Up Correctly
seven properties of horizontal formatting[seven properties of horizontal formatting: Horizontal properties
shadow, adding to text: 10.3.2. text-shadow
shorthand hex notation: Short hexadecimal colors
shorthand properties: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
background property: 6.2.6. Bringing It All Together
border property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
font property: 5.5. Using Shorthand: The font Property
list-style property: 7.7.4. List Styles In Shorthand
shrink-wrapping content: Setting width and height
shrinking text: 11.2.6. The Incredible Shrinking Text!
side-offset properties: 9.1.2. Side Offsets
sidebar: 11.1.2. Case 2: Library Catalog System Interface
images in: 6.2.2. Repeats with Direction
simulating class/ID selectors: Simulating class and ID
single attribute values, matching: Matching single attribute values
single quotation marks ( ): 5.1.3. Using Quotation Marks
single-side margin properties: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
slanted text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
small-caps text: 5.4.2. Font Variations
sorting (cascade rules): 2.8. The Cascade
spaces separating keywords: 2.1.3. Declarations
2.1.3. Declarations
spacing: 4.1.4. Word Spacing and Letterspacing
alignment and: Spacing, alignment, and font size
letter: Letterspacing
speak properties: 10.7. Tables
special effects
background colors: 6.1.3. Special Effects
perfect alignment of backgrounds: Interesting effects
text shadow: 10.3.2. text-shadow
specificity: 2.7. Specificity
inheritance and: 2.7.1. Inheritance and Specificity

Of course, when an element is floated, other content "flows around" it. This is familiar behavior with floated images, but the same is true if you float a paragraph, for example. In Figure 7-64, we can see this effect (a margin has been added to make the situation more clear):

P.aside {float: left; width: 5em; margin: 1em;}
Figure 7-64

Figure 7-64. A floating paragraph

One of the first interesting things to

specificity sorting: 2.8. The Cascade
speech-synthesis browsers: 1.1.1. What a Mess
1.1.1. What a Mess
10.8.2. The Spoken Word
stacking context: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
stacking positioned elements: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
sticky notes: 9.3. Absolute Positioning
stress property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
STRIKE element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
strikethrough (see line-through)
structural languages: 1.2.6. Preparing for the Future
structural markup: 1.1.1. What a Mess
structure of rules: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
STYLE attribute: 1.4.6. Inline Styles
2.8. The Cascade
quotation marks and: 5.1.3. Using Quotation Marks
specificity and: 2.7.1. Inheritance and Specificity
style declarations: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
STYLE element: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
style sheets
alternate, defining: LINK attributes
cascading (see CSS)
consistency, achieving with: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
document: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
embedded: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
external (see external style sheets)
ignored when not recognized: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
imported: 1.2.3. Using Your Styles on Multiple Pages
overriding styles in: No floating at all
linking to HTML documents: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
making concise through grouping: 2.2. Grouping
naming: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
reader: 1.2.4. Cascading
styles: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
for borders: 7.4.1. Borders with Style
disappearing with Netscape Navigator: 11.2.10. Disappearing Styles
inline: 1.4.6. Inline Styles
using on multiple pages: 1.2.3. Using Your Styles on Multiple Pages
styling common elements: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
stylistic languages: 1.2.6. Preparing for the Future
subscript (SUB) element: 4.1.3. Vertical Alignment
subscripting: Superscripting and subscripting
superscript (SUP) element: 4.1.3. Vertical Alignment
superscripting: Superscripting and subscripting
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics): 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope

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words across two lines, thus reducing the space between words and improving the appearance of lines (see Figure 4-17).

Figure 4-17

Figure 4-17. Justification with hyphenation


The fact that hyphenation is not described in CSS has more to do with the fact that different languages have different hyphenation rules. Rather than try to concoct a set of rules that would most likely be incomplete, the specification simply avoids the problem. In addition, this allows user agents to employ their own hyphenation rules, andin Figure 7-29.

Figure 7-29

Figure 7-29. Border styles


The most interesting border style is double.It's defined such that the width of the two lines, plus thewidth of the space between them, is equal to the value ofborder-width (discussed in the next section).However, the specification doesn't say whether one of the linesshould be thicker than the other, or if they should be the same

<IMG SRC="test1.gif" STYLE="margin: 5px;" ALT="first test">
<IMG SRC="test2.gif" STYLE="margin: 5px;" ALT="second test">

(Note that the images in Figure 8-6 are actually inline elements, but they effectively demonstrate that horizontally adjacent margins do not collapse.)

Figure 8-6

Figure 8-6. Horizontal margins don't collapse

Almost as simple is this: the sum of the horizontal components of a nonfloated block-level element box always equals thethe steps a user agent has to go through in order to generate a line box. First, for each inline nonreplaced element (or string of text outside of an inline element), the font-size is used to determine the initial content-height. Thus, if an inline element has a font-size of 15px , then the content-height starts out as 15px .

Second, all of the inline elements in a given line are aligned according to their values for vertical-align. By text-indent of 0 for any paragraph which immediately follows any H1 element. However, since the paragraph here is the child of a DIV, it doesn't immediately follow the H1. Therefore, we would need to add a child selector and a first-child pseudo-class:

H1 + DIV > P:first-child {text-indent: 0;}

This will match any paragraph that is the first child of a DIV that immediately follows an