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Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive GuideSearch this book

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Index: S

S element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
sample projects using CSS: 11. CSS in Action
sans serif fonts: 5.1. Font Families
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG): 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope
scaling factor
absolute font sizes: 5.3.1. Absolute Sizes
line height and: 4.1.2. The Height of Lines
scaling line heights: 8.4.3.1. Scaling the line heights
scrollbars: 9.1.4.1. Overflow
block-level elements and: 8.2.1.1. Height
selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
class: 2.3. Class and ID Selectors
2.3.1. Class Selectors

Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.

Web-based apps are very deployable, since they don't require special Java VMs to be installed on the client side, or any other special plug ins, if the creator of the web-based app relies solely on HTML. Unfortunately, this can restrict the level of service that can be offered by a web-based app when compared to the functionality offered by custom clients of an app server, but they are a good compromise when it comes to providing web-based access to your information. In fact, in a real world scenario, both a web-based app and app server may be used together, in order to provide your customers access to their information. In an Intranet setting, you might deploy the clients that come with the app server, and in an Internet setting it would be better to deploy a web-based app that sits on top of this app server, and gives your customers (relatively) limited access to their data over the web (via a simple web browser).

Web-based apps and app servers integrate very well, and this is another reason why Java and XML make a powerful combination for developing systems that give your customers access to their information from anywhere, using any browser over the web. In the future, you can imagine various different web-based apps servicing different kinds of clients, e.g. web browsers on desktops, web browsers on PDAs, and web browsers on all kinds of different consumer electronics devices. By keeping your information structured in a pure way (by using XML), and by allowing access to this information through app servers, you can write many different web-based apps that render this information by customizing it uniquely for each different device that is allowed access to this information. This is more a more scalable solution that storing all this information in web pages, even if these web pages are dynamically generated. So you can have one app server that stores all the data in XML format. You can write a web-based app (which sits on top of this app-server) that allows PalmPilots to access this information over the web. You can write another web-based app (that also sits on top of the same app server) that allows conventional web browsers to access this information over the web. XML and Java have the potential to make this truly platform independent and device independent computing a reality.

API Coverage per category

CSS2: 10.2. CSS2 Selectors
grouping: 2.2.1. Grouping Selectors
ID: 2.3. Class and ID Selectors
2.3.2. ID Selectors
pseudo-class: 2.4.1. Pseudo-Class Selectors
pseudo-element: 2.4.2. Pseudo-Element Selectors
semicolon (;) terminating declarations: 2.1.3. Declarations
2.2.2. Grouping Declarations
serif fonts: 5.1. Font Families
servers, external style sheets and: 11.2.11. Serving CSS Up Correctly
seven properties of horizontal formatting[seven properties of horizontal formatting: 8.2.2.1. Horizontal properties
shadow, adding to text: 10.3.2. text-shadow
shorthand hex notation: 3.1.2.4. Short hexadecimal colors
shorthand properties: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
background property: 6.2.6. Bringing It All Together
border property: 7.4.4. Shorthand Border Properties
font property: 5.5. Using Shorthand: The font Property
list-style property: 7.7.4. List Styles In Shorthand
shrink-wrapping content: 9.1.3.1. Setting width and height
shrinking text: 11.2.6. The Incredible Shrinking Text!
side-offset properties: 9.1.2. Side Offsets
sidebar: 11.1.2. Case 2: Library Catalog System Interface
images in: 6.2.2. Repeats with Direction
simulating class/ID selectors: 10.2.2.4. Simulating class and ID
single attribute values, matching: 10.2.2.3. Matching single attribute values
single quotation marks ( ): 5.1.3. Using Quotation Marks
single-side margin properties: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
slanted text: 5.4.1. Fonts with Style
small-caps text: 5.4.2. Font Variations
sorting (cascade rules): 2.8. The Cascade
spaces separating keywords: 2.1.3. Declarations
2.1.3. Declarations
spacing: 4.1.4. Word Spacing and Letterspacing
alignment and: 4.1.4.3. Spacing, alignment, and font size
letter: 4.1.4.2. Letterspacing
speak properties: 10.7. Tables
special effects
background colors: 6.1.3. Special Effects
perfect alignment of backgrounds: 6.2.5.1. Interesting effects
text shadow: 10.3.2. text-shadow
specificity: 2.7. Specificity
inheritance and: 2.7.1. Inheritance and Specificity
specificity sorting: 2.8. The Cascade
speech-synthesis browsers: 1.1.1. What a Mess
1.1.1. What a Mess
10.8.2. The Spoken Word
stacking context: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
stacking positioned elements: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
sticky notes: 9.3. Absolute Positioning
stress property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
STRIKE element: 4.1.6. Text Decoration
strikethrough (see line-through)
structural languages: 1.2.6. Preparing for the Future
structural markup: 1.1.1. What a Mess
structure of rules: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
STYLE attribute: 1.4.6. Inline Styles
2.8. The Cascade
quotation marks and: 5.1.3. Using Quotation Marks
specificity and: 2.7.1. Inheritance and Specificity
style declarations: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
STYLE element: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
style sheets
alternate, defining: 1.4.1.1. LINK attributes
cascading (see CSS)
consistency, achieving with: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
document: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
embedded: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
external (see external style sheets)
ignored when not recognized: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
imported: 1.2.3. Using Your Styles on Multiple Pages
overriding styles in: 7.6.1.3. No floating at all
linking to HTML documents: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
making concise through grouping: 2.2. Grouping
naming: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
reader: 1.2.4. Cascading
styles: 1.4.4. Actual Styles
for borders: 7.4.1. Borders with Style
disappearing with Netscape Navigator: 11.2.10. Disappearing Styles
inline: 1.4.6. Inline Styles
using on multiple pages: 1.2.3. Using Your Styles on Multiple Pages
styling common elements: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
stylistic languages: 1.2.6. Preparing for the Future
subscript (SUB) element: 4.1.3. Vertical Alignment
subscripting: 4.1.3.2. Superscripting and subscripting
superscript (SUP) element: 4.1.3. Vertical Alignment
superscripting: 4.1.3.2. Superscripting and subscripting
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics): 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope


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Of the browsers which even recognize font-variant:small-caps (Explorer 4 and 5, and Opera 3.5), onlyOpera and IE5 for Macintosh do what authors would expect in thedisplay of the text. Other versions of Explorer take the all-capitalsroute.


Okay, so that was the easiest way to specify color -- scary asthat may seem, it's true. The other four ways are a bit morecomplicated. The advantage is that with these methods, you canspecify any color in the 8-bit color spectrum, not just sixteen (orhowever many) named colors. This is accomplished by taking advantageof the way colors are generated by computers.