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Index: M

margin-bottom property: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
margin-left property: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
margin property: 7.3. Margins
margin-right property: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
margin-top property: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
margins: 7. Boxes and Borders
7.3. Margins
collapsing: 7.3.5. Collapsing Margins
block-level elements: Collapsing vertical margins
floated elements: 7.6.1. Floated Elements
horizontal, noncollapsing: 8.2.2. Horizontal Formatting
inline elements and: 7.3.7. Margins and Inline Elements
caution with: 7.3.8. Margins: Known Issues
length values and: 7.3.1. Length Values and Margins
negative (see negative margins)
vs. padding: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
percentages and: 7.3.2. Percentages and Margins
replication: 7.3.3. Replicating Values
single side, setting margin for: 7.3.4. Single-Side Margin Properties
table cells and: 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope
markers: 8.2.3. List Items
8.2.3. List Items
10.4.2. Markers
matching hyphenated values: Matching hyphenated values
matching single attribute values: Matching single attribute values
max-height property: Limiting width and height
you wanted an H1 with a red, green, blue, and yellow border, it's this easy:

H1 {border-style: solid; border-color: red green blue yellow;}
Figure 7-43

Figure 7-43. One border, many colors

As previously discussed, if no colors are defined, then the default color is the foreground color of the element. Thus, the following declaration will be displayed as shown in Figure 7-44:

P.shade1 {border-style: solid; border-width: thick; color: gray;}

max-width property: Limiting width and height
media types: 1.3.1. Limited Initial Scope
10.8. Media Types and @-rules
Microsoft Internet Explorer (see Internet Explorer)
middle alignment: In the middle
millimeters (mm): 3.2.1. Absolute Length Units
min-height property: Limiting width and height
min-max properties: Limiting width and height
min-width property: Limiting width and height
monospace fonts: 5.1. Font Families
multiple pages, using styles on: 1.2.3. Using Your Styles on Multiple Pages

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Figure 7-27

Figure 7-27. Overlapping text in Explorer

It gets worse, unfortunately. If you apply margins to inline elements, as was discussed previously, you'll get results from Navigator 4.x like those shown in Figure 7-28.

Figure 7-28

Figure 7-28. Margins, inline elements, and Navigator 4.x

The style used to generate Figure 7-28 was as follows:

A:link, A:visited {text-decoration: underline overline;}

This effectively makes text-decoration a shorthand element. You have to be careful in this case, because if you have two different decorations matched to the same element, the value of the rule that wins out will completely replace the value of the loser. Consider:

H2.stricken {text-decoration: line-through;}
H2 {text-decoration: underline overline;}

Marketing has decreed that all pages shall use a white backgroundwith a thin dark green stripe running down the left edge, black bodytext in a serif font, and hyperlinks that are a dark green whenunvisited and dark gray when visited. Furthermore, document titlesmust be underlined and use a color similar to the standard navigationbuttons found at the top of every page, which are gray text against adark green background -- the same dark green you are to use forunvisited hyperlinks and the left edge of the browser window. Allheadings, including document titles, are to use a sans serif font.

1.4.2. The STYLE Element

The STYLE element, which is a relatively new element in HTML, is the most common way to define a style sheet, since it appears in the document itself. STYLE should always use the attribute TYPE; in the case of a CSS1 document, the correct value is text/css, just as it was withHow can XML help app servers do their work? As you can see in Figure 2, in order for the app server to harvest information from such a rich variety of sources, there must be some common ground between all of these sources (each of which might be running on a different hardware and software system). This common ground is the information which flows throughout the entire system, regardless of what source the information comes from. CORBA is an example of tying disparate systems together based on the interfaces that certain remote objects implement. XML does the same thing for data. It allows these disparate systems to share information in a medium that consists only of pure information (and the structural relationships that exist inside of that information). By taking the lowest common denominator approach by using plain text to encode data, XML allows these systems to talk with each other without requiring any special binary information format converters or other service layers to translate between binary formats (for encoding data). Also, since HTTP already supports transmission of plain text, it is completely natural to move XML around using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol through firewalls and disparate networks. This is shown in Figure 3. XML can be transmitted between systems using one of the most prevalent protocols in use today, Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP 1.1 (which is the protocol of the web).

App server developers are not restricted to using HTTP, they can transmit and recieve XML information using simple remote CORBA objects and RMI objects. The key is that by using XML, it makes these remote services or objects easier to build. And, by sticking with XML, any one of these technologies can be used in your design of your app server. You can use whatever technology is most appropriate to getting the job done, knowing that all the information flows as XML and can be processed by any part of the system. The reason Java object serialization did not achieve this is because it encodes object data to a binary format that is dependent on too many things (like the JVM version, and the existence of classes when things are deserialized, etc). XML is not limited by any of these restrictions (or problems), which makes it much easier to create systems that allow XML information to flow between different subsystems. Also by relying only on the data, large portions of the system can be replaced with better or different implementations for future-readiness.

App servers traditionally give their client apps access to information in remote databases, remote file systems, remote object repositories, remote web resources, and even other app servers. All these information sources don't even need to reside on the machine that hosts the app server. These remote resources may be on other machines on the Intranet or the Internet. Using Java and XML, RMI, JDBC, CORBA, JNDI, Servlet and Swing, you can create app servers that can integrate all kinds of remote and local information resources, and client apps that allow you to remotely or locally access this information from the app server.

In the future, with publicly available DTDs that are standardized for each vertical industry, XML based app servers will become very popular. Also when XML schema repositories become available and widely used, app servers will be able to take on a new role and provide application services that are not offered now. Companies will need to share information with other companies in related fields, and each company might have a different software system in which all their data is housed. By agreeing upon a set of DTDs or schemas (encoded in XML), these companies can exchange information with each other regardless of what systems they are using to store this information. If their app servers can exchange XML documents (based on some shared DTD or schema), then these disparate app servers can understand each other and share information. One of the uses for XML foreseen by the W3C is just this, vertical industries (like insurance and health care) creating sets of DTDs and schemas that all companies in the industry agree upon. Then these companies' app servers can talk to each other using some popular protocol (like HTTP or CORBA/IIOP) to exchange information between each other. This has the potential to save a lot of time and money in the daily business operations of these companies.