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Index: E

element boxes: 7.1. Basic Element Boxes
8.1. Basic Boxes
element clipping: Element clipping
element selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
classification of: 2.9. Classification of Elements
floated (see floated elements)
overlapping, altering: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
styling common: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
visibility of: 9.1.5. Element Visibility
Figure 9-1

Figure 9-1. An example of a containing block

Not every element in CSS generates a containing block for itsdescendant elements. The rules for the establishment of a containingblock are as follows:

  1. The containing block of the "root element" (also calledthe initial containingblock) is established by the user agent. InHTML, the root element is the HTML element,

    elevation property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
    em box: 5.3. Font Size
    em-height (em): em and ex units
    em length value: 5.3.3. Percentages and Sizes
    em square: 5.3. Font Size
    embedded style sheets: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
    ex-height (ex): em and ex units
    Extensible Markup Language (see XML)
    external style sheets: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
    creating: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
    with @import directive: 1.4.3. The @import Directive
    with LINK element: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
    extra space around elements, adding: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
    7.2. Margins or Padding?
    (see also margins)

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tag, the attributes and values are fairly straightforward. REL stands for "relation," and in this case, the relation is "stylesheet." TYPE is always set to text/css. This value describes the type of data that is to be loaded using the LINK tag. That way, the web browser knows that the style sheet is a CSS style sheet, a fact that will determine how the browser deals with the data it imports. After all, there may be other style languages in the future, so it will be important to say which

Figure 7-33

Figure 7-33. Multiple border styles on a single element

Again we see the top-right-bottom-left order of values. This is just like the ability to set different margins with multiple values. All the same rules about value replication apply to border styles, just as they did with margins and padding. Thus, the following two statements would have the same effect, as depicted in Figure 7-34: