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Index: E

element boxes: 7.1. Basic Element Boxes
8.1. Basic Boxes
element clipping: 9.1.4.3. Element clipping
element selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
elements
classification of: 2.9. Classification of Elements
floated (see floated elements)
overlapping, altering: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
styling common: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
visibility of: 9.1.5. Element Visibility
elevation property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
em box: 5.3. Font Size
em-height (em): 3.2.2.1. em and ex units
em length value: 5.3.3. Percentages and Sizes
em square: 5.3. Font Size
embedded style sheets: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
ex-height (ex): 3.2.2.1. em and ex units
Extensible Markup Language (see XML)
external style sheets: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
creating: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
loading
with @import directive: 1.4.3. The @import Directive
with LINK element: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
extra space around elements, adding: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
7.2. Margins or Padding?
(see also margins)


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First is that in Navigator 4 and Internet Explorer 4, tiling only happened down and to the right. If you're using Explorer 4, centering an image in the background and then tiling it would look like Figure 6-52.

Figure 6-52

Figure 6-52. Incorrect behavior in Internet Explorer 4

Navigator 4 manages to avoid this error by not honoring background positioning at all, which means that the origin image always appears in the top left corner of an element under Navigator 4. Of the browsers that correctly positionthe edge of the other's content. If the first piece of paper has half an inch of plastic along its bottom edge, and the second has a third of an inch along its top, then when they slide together, the first piece's plastic will touch the top edge of the second piece of paper. The two are now done being placed on the canvas, and the plastic attached to the pieces is overlapping.

This is also occurs where multiple margins meet, such as at the end of a list. Adding to the earlier example, let us assume the following rules: altered appearance. This is especially true of serif fonts, where inaddition to the fact that the text characters "lean," theserifs may be altered in an italic face. Oblique text, on the otherhand, is simply a slanted version of the normal, upright text. Fontfaces with labels like Italic, Cursive,and Kursivare usually mapped to the italic keyword, whileoblique can be assigned faces with labels such as

A.grid {background-image: url(smallgrid.gif);}<P>This paragraph contains <A HREF="..." CLASS="grid">an anchor with abackground image</A> which is tiled only within the anchor.</P>
Figure 6-24

Figure 6-24. A background image on an inline element

There are a number of ways to employ this technique. You might placean image in the background of STRONG elements, inorder to make them stand out more. You could fill in the backgroundof headings with a wavy pattern, or with little dots. You can evenfill in the cells of tables with patterns to make them distinct fromthe rest of the page, as shown in Figure 6-25:consider the case of an element containing one very long line of text, as shown in Figure 8-45. Note that we've put a border around the line; this has been accomplished by wrapping the entire line in a SPAN element, and assigning it a border style:

SPAN {border: 1px dashed black;}
Figure 8-45

Figure 8-45. A single-line inline element

This is the simplest case of an inline element contained by a block-level element, no different in its way than a paragraph with