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Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive GuideSearch this book

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Index: E

element boxes: 7.1. Basic Element Boxes
8.1. Basic Boxes
element clipping: Element clipping
element selectors: 2.1.1. Rule Structure
classification of: 2.9. Classification of Elements
floated (see floated elements)
overlapping, altering: 9.5. Stacking Positioned Elements
styling common: 11.2.4. Styling Common Elements
visibility of: 9.1.5. Element Visibility
elevation property: 10.8.2. The Spoken Word
em box: 5.3. Font Size
em-height (em): em and ex units
em length value: 5.3.3. Percentages and Sizes
em square: 5.3. Font Size
embedded style sheets: 1.4.2. The STYLE Element
ex-height (ex): em and ex units
Extensible Markup Language (see XML)
external style sheets: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
creating: 11.1.1. Case 1: Consistent Look and Feel
with @import directive: 1.4.3. The @import Directive
with LINK element: 1.4.1. The LINK Tag
By making the W3C the keeper of the XML standard, it ensures that no one vendor should be able to cause interoperability problems to occur between systems that use the open standard. This should be reassuring to most companies making an investment in this technology, by being vendor neutral, this solution proposes to keep even small companies out of reach of big companies choosing to change the standards on them. For example, if a big company chooses to change the platform at its whim, then most other companies relying on that platform suffer. By keeping all data in XML and using XML in communications protocols, companies can maximize the lifetime of their investment in their products and solutions.

XML is language independent

By being language independent, XML bypasses the requirement to have a standard binary encoding or storage format. Language independence also fosters immense interoperability amongst heterogeneous systems. It is also good for future compatilbilty. For example, if in the future a product needs to be changed in order to deal with a new computing paradigm or network protocol, by keeping XML flowing through the system, addition of a new layer to deal with this change is feasible.

DOM and SAX are open, language-independent set of interfaces

extra space around elements, adding: 7.2. Margins or Padding?
7.2. Margins or Padding?
(see also margins)

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very nicely. Generating a line box

Here arethe steps a user agent has to go through in order to generate a linebox. First, for each inline nonreplaced element (or string of textoutside of an inline element), the font-size isused to determine the initial content-height.

You may notice that, unlike other chapters, almost none of the figures in this chapter was generated with a web browser. This is something of a statement about the reliability and consistency of positioning implementations at the time of this writing: not one of them was solid enough to trust completely. It was actually easier to draw theoretical examples by hand than to take screenshots in web browsers and then retouch them in Photoshop.

This is also why this chapter is largely (but not entirely) free of browser warnings and caveats. Rather than drown the explanatory textdarker than what was inherited. If none is available, then the useragent sets the element's font weight to the next numericalvalue, unless the value is already 900, in whichcase the weight remains at 900. Thus, you mightencounter the following situations, illustrated in Figure 5-10:

P {font-weight: normal;}P EM {font-weight: bolder;}  /* results in 'bold' text, evaluates to '700' */H1 {font-weight: bold;}H1 B {font-weight: bolder;}  /* if no bolder face exists, evaluates to '800' */
P.starry{background-image: url(;color: white;}<P CLASS="starry">It's the end of autumn, which means the stars will bebrighter than  ever!  Join us...

As we can see in Figure 6-23, a background has beenapplied to a single paragraph and no other part of the document.

Figure 6-23

Figure 6-23. Applying a background image for a single element

This ability goes even further, allowing you to place backgroundimages on inline elements like