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10.8. Media Types and @-rules

Don't get too excited yet. We aren't talking about media types in the sense of things like audio and video authoring. Well, not exactly, anyway. We're talking about creating rules for presentation within various kinds of media. The defined types of media thus far are:

These are all values of @media, one of several new @-rules. Some others are:

10.8.1. Paged Media

Since I just brought up paged media, I should probably mention that there are some new properties that apply to such media. Five of them apply to page breaks and where they appear:

page-break-before
page-break-after
page-break-inside
orphans
widows 

The first two are used to control whether a page break should appear before or after a given element, and the latter two are common desktop publishing terms for the minimum number of lines that can appear at the end or beginning of a page. They mean the same thing in CSS2 as they do in desktop publishing.

page-break-inside (first proposed by this author, as it happens) is used to define whether or not page breaks should be placed inside a given element. For example, you might not want unordered lists to have page breaks inside them. You would then declare UL {page-break-inside: avoid;}. The rendering agent (your printer, for example) would avoid breaking unordered lists whenever possible.

There is also size, which is simply used to define whether a page should be printed in landscape or portrait mode and the length of each axis. If you plan to print your page to a professional printing system, you might want to use marks, which can apply either cross or crop marks to your page. Thus you might declare:

@page {size: 8.5in 11in; margin: 0.5in; marks: cross;}

This will set the pages to be U.S. letter-standard, 8.5 inches wide by 11 inches tall, and place cross marks in the corners of each page.

In addition, there are the new pseudo-classes :left , :right, and :first, all of which are applied only to the @page rule. Thus, you could set different margins for left and right pages in double-sided printing:

@page:left {margin-left: 0.75in; margin-right: 1in;}
@page:right{margin-left: 1in; margin-right: 0.75in;} 

The :first selector applies only to the first page of a document, so that you could give it a larger top margin or a bigger font size:

@page:first {margin-top: 2in; font-size: 150%;}

10.8.2. The Spoken Word

To round things out, we'll cover some of the properties in the area of aural style sheets. These are properties that help define how a speaking browser will actually speak the page. This may not be important to many people, but for the visually impaired, these properties are a necessity.

First off, there is voice-family, which is much the same as font-family in its structure: the author can define both a specific voice and a generic voice family. There are several properties controlling the speed at which the page is read (speech-rate), as well as properties for the pitch , pitch-range, stress, richness, and volume of a given voice. There are also properties that let you control how acronyms, punctuation, dates, numerals, and time are spoken. There are ways to specify audio cues, which can be played before, during, or after a given element (such as a hyperlink), ways to insert pauses before or after elements, and even the ability to control the apparent position in space from which a sound comes via the properties azimuth and elevation. With these last two properties, you could define a style sheet where the text is read by a voice "in front of" the user, whereas background music comes from "behind" and audio cues come from "above" the user!



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writing: Opera 3.6 for Windows, Internet Explorer 4.5 and 5 for Macintosh, and Internet Explorer 5 for Windows.

6.2.5. Getting Attached

Okay, so we can place the origin image for the background anywhere in the background of an element, and we can control (to a degree) how it tiles. As you may have already realized, element there due to its earlier position in the document source,then the latter element is placed against the outer right edge of thepreviously floated element. If, however, a floated element'stop is below the bottom of all earlier floated images, then it canfloat all the way to the inner left edge of the parent. Some examplesof this are shown in Figure 8-31.

Figure 8-31

Figure 8-31. Keeping floats from overlapping

The advantage of this rule is that, since you don't have toworry about one floated element obscuring another, you can be assured available, 600 is assigned the same variant as500. This method is also used for700, 800, and900.

In order to understand this more clearly, let's look at threeexamples of font-weight assignment. In the first, assume that thefont family Karrank% is an OpenType font and so already has nineweights already defined. In this case, the numbers are assigned to

Figure 8-36

Figure 8-36. If there isn't room, floats get pushed to a new line

8. A floating element must be placed as high as possible.

Subject to the restrictions introduced by the previous seven rules, of course. Historically, browsers aligned the top of a floated element with the top of the line box after the one in which the image's tag appears. Rule 8, however, implies that its top should be even with the top of the same line box as that in which its