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10.6. Borders

In CSS1, there are quite a few properties devoted to setting borders around element boxes, such as border-top-width and border-color, not to mention border itself. CSS2 adds a even more border properties, most of which are aimed at giving the author even more specific control of the borders. Before, it was difficult to set a specific color or style for a given side of the border, except

A:link {border: 5px solid blue;}
P {font-size: 14px; line-height: 24px;}

Because there is extra space added above and below each line, the border around the hyperlink doesn't impinge on any other line, as we can see in Figure 8-63.

Figure 8-63

Figure 8-63. Increasing line-height to leave room for inline borders

This approach works in this particular case, of course, because all of the text is the same size. Just to cover all the bases, though, it through properties like border-left, and that could require more than one value. The new CSS2 properties address this, and their names are pretty self-explanatory:

border-top-color
border-right-color
border-bottom-color
border-left-color
border-top-style
border-right-style
border-bottom-style
border-left-style


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In the future, with publicly available DTDs that are standardized for each vertical industry, XML based app servers will become very popular. Also when XML schema repositories become available and widely used, app servers will be able to take on a new role and provide application services that are not offered now. Companies will need to share information with other companies in related fields, and each company might have a different software system in which all their data is housed. By agreeing upon a set of DTDs or schemas (encoded in XML), these companies can exchange information with each other regardless of what systems they are using to store this information. If their app servers can exchange XML documents (based on some shared DTD or schema), then these disparate app servers can understand each other and share information. One of the uses for XML foreseen by the W3C is just this, vertical industries (like insurance and health care) creating sets of DTDs and schemas that all companies in the industry agree upon. Then these companies' app servers can talk to each other using some popular protocol (like HTTP or CORBA/IIOP) to exchange information between each other. This has the potential to save a lot of time and money in the daily business operations of these companies.

Web-based Applications

Web-based applications are similar to app servers, except for one thing: Web-based applications don't have client apps, instead they use web browsers on the client side. They generate their front ends using HTML, which is dynamically generated by the web-based app. In the Java world, Servlets are best suited for this job.

10.2.3. More Pseudo-Classes and Pseudo-Elements

Even though that might seem like it's more than enough, another area of expansion is in pseudo-class and pseudo-element selectors.

10.2.3.1. :hover

To begin,