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10.4. Generated Content

Generated content is a new way of adding things to existing content without having to alter the content itself. It's done by using the pseudo-elements :before and :after and the property content. Here's a basic example of how it works:

P:before, P:after {content: "\""; color: gray;}
<P>This is a quote.</P>

The browser will display what's shown in Figure 10-15.

Figure 10-15

Figure 10-15. Adding generated content

Note that the double-quote mark was escaped out -- that is, preceded by a backslash. This is necessary, since text values for content must be enclosed in double quotes. You could also place images before (or after) content, using something like P:before {content: url(para.gif);} to put a paragraph symbol at the beginning of each paragraph. You can even string multiple values together like this (shown in Figure 10-16):

P:before {content: url(para.gif) " -- ";}
Figure 10-16

Figure 10-16. Adding an image and text before a paragraph

This would cause each paragraph to be started with a paragraph symbol, a blank space, two dashes, and then another blank space. Note that all of this is considered part of the paragraph and is inlined within it. The spaces appear before and after the double dash because they're included in the string value. If these spaces were omitted, then space would not appear to either side of the dashes.

Let's say, though, that you want to do some real quoting, using real quotation marks -- you know, the curly double quotes that are so hard to specify in HTML and which often don't show up even if you do try to specify them. CSS2 has ways to handle this.

content has some other values you can use:

So if you wanted your quotations to begin and end with quotation marks, instead of typing in a literal quotation mark, you could let the browser insert "smart quotes" for you.

BLOCKQUOTE:before {content: open-quote;}
BLOCKQUOTE:after {content: close-quote;}

10.4.1. Automatic Numbering

In the same vein, CSS2 also includes properties for automatic numbering. First, you can specify a counter as a value of content. This can be a bit tricky, and it would take too long to run through all the possibilities, but here's an example. Say you wanted the chapters and sections of a document numbered 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and so on. In addition, you're using H1 for your chapters and H2 for your sections. Here are the declarations you would use:

H1:before {
content: "Chapter " counter(chapter) ". ";
counter-increment: chapter;   /* Add 1 to chapter */
counter-reset: section;       /* Set section to 0 */
H2:before {
content: counter(chapter) "." counter(section) " ";
counter-increment: section;

As we can see from Figure 10-17, the user agent will add the word "Chapter" and a number at the beginning of H1 text. This number is automatically incremented with each H1, due to the declaration counter-increment: chapter;. It also sets the section counter back to zero through counter-reset: section;. Then, for each section heading (H2), the browser uses </STYLE>, it will ignore them altogether.However, the declarations within those tags willnot be ignored, because they will appear to beordinary text so far as the browser is concerned. So yourstyledeclarations will appear at the top of your page! (Of course, thebrowser should ignore the text because it isn't part of theBODY element, but this is never the case.) Thisproblem is illustrated in Figure 1-5.

the chapter number, followed by a period (.) followed by the current section number, which is also automatically incremented.

Figure 10-17

Figure 10-17. Adding counters to elements

You don't have to increment by one every time, either. You can define any integer as the increment value, including zero and negative numbers. If you want each section to have an even number, as we see in Figure 10-18, then you can declare the following:

H2:before {
content: "Section " counter(section) ". ";
counter-increment: section 2; /* Add 2 to chapter */
Figure 10-18

Figure 10-18. Changing a counter's incremental value

You can also keep an element from incrementing a counter by setting its display to none. Of course, that will cause the element to disappear altogether.

10.4.2. Markers

You can do even more by using the value marker for the property display, which enables you to define your own marker styles for any element at all. You're already familiar with markers, as it happens -- the bullets and numbers at the beginning of list items are markers.

Let's say we want to recreate the way unordered lists behave. For the purposes of this example, we'll use the image disc.gif to stand in for the normal bullets. Using marker properties, we would declare:

LI:before {display: marker;
content: url(disc.gif);
marker-offset: 1em;

This will insert the disc image before each list item, and set it to be offset from the left edge of the LI content by 1em, as shown in Figure 10-19.

Figure 10-19

Figure 10-19. Styling list markers

Marker properties are not restricted to list items, however. Let's say that, throughout a document, there are a few paragraphs with a class of aside. We wish to call attention to these paragraphs by inserting a small note to the side of each one. Here's one way to do it:

BODY {counter-reset: aside-ctr;}
P {margin-left: 10em;}
P.aside:before {display: marker;
content: "Aside " counter(aside-ctr) " --";
counter-increment: aside-ctr;
text-align: right;
marker-offset: 1em;
width: 9.5em;

The effect will be something like that seen in Figure 10-20.

Figure 10-20

Figure 10-20. Automatically numbered asides

This is yet another aspect of CSS2 that, once it's been properly implemented, will allow authors to do quite a bit with their documents.

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padding. As we discussed before, it also extends to the outer edge of the border, but the background has to go through the padding before it even gets to the border.

The default value of padding is 0 (zero), and padding values cannot be negative.


Opera 3.5 allows negative padding values, but this was fixed in Opera 3.6. The applications that you create with Java and XML will rely on the services provided by your Java XML Parser (using DOM or SAX). The information itself might be stored in a variety of persistence engines (object databases, relational databases, file systems, dynamic websites, etc.). The information however that comes out of these persistence storage engines must be converted to XML (if they are not in XML already). Once this is done, you have to be concerned with the material covered in this document. This document outlines the most popular Java XML application categories that are possible in an environment where data is encoded with XML, where web access is ubiquitous and platform independence is a necessity.

Java Application Layer

All of the code that you write (in your Java classes) might be considered the Java application layer. Other layers are the XML Parser layer, the XML source (that supplies the XML data that is necessary), and the persistence engine (where the data is actually stored and retrieved by the source).

Your code (in the Java application layer) has to make use of the DOM or SAX API and the XML parser in order to access the information in XML documents (that come from your source). The source might be responsible for pulling data from different persistence engines (relational or object databases) and even the web (dynamically generated websites that supply only XML data).

translated as "make sure that the left side of an H2 is clear of floating images" and is a replacement for the HTML construct <BR clear="left">. Figure 7-74 shows the following declaration, which uses clear to prevent H2 elements from flowing past floated elements to the left side:

H2 {clear: left;}
A:hover {font-size: 200%;}

In theory, a user agent would have to double the size of anchor text as the pointer hovers over it, which could well cause major redisplay issues. An author could cause similar problems by declaring that TEXTAREA elements should change their size when they are in focus. User agents are not required to reflow the document based on styles assigned to these pseudo-elements, although some may do so -- it remains to be seen.

P {text-decoration: underline; color: black;}
B {color: gray; text-decoration: none;}
<P>This paragraph, which is black and has a black underline, also contains
<B>boldfaced text</B> which does not have black underline beneath it.</P>

As Figure 4-61 shows, a web browser switched off the underlining for the B element. Navigator, Explorer, and Opera all do