Book HomeCascading Style Sheets: The Definitive GuideSearch this book Monday 23rd of October 2017 02:40:02 AM


( Just make sure your LINK comes before the@import statement.) You'll end up withsomething like this:

/* file 'link-styles.css' */        /* file 'import-styles.css' */H1 {margin-bottom: 0;}              H1 {margin-bottom: 0;}P {margin-top: -1em;}               P {margin-top: 0;}<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="link-styles.css"TITLE="Linked"><STYLE TYPE="text/css">

The subject of this book is, as you might have guessed by the cover, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). There are two "levels" to CSS; these are referred to as CSS1 and CSS2. The difference between the two is that CSS2 is all of CSS1, plus a lot more. This book attempts to cover all of CSS1, and CSS positioning, which is a part of CSS2. The rest of CSS2 is excluded because, at the time of this writing, nobody had implemented most of it. Rather than cover a lot of theoretical territory, we chose to stick to what was currently usable.

If you are a web designer or document author interested in sophisticated page styling, improved accessibility, and saving time and effort, then this book is for you. All you really need before starting the book is a decent knowledge of HTML 4.0. The better you know HTML, of course, the better prepared you'll be. You will need to know very little else in order to follow this book.

It is important to remember something about web standards and books: the former are continually evolving, while the latter are frozen in time (until the next edition comes out, anyway). In the case of HTML and CSS, there are a great many changes afoot even as these words are being written. The recent formalization of XHTML 1.0 as a full W3C Recommendation, for example, is a major milestone in the evolution of the World Wide Web. There are likely to be even more levels to CSS, further extending the ability to style documents; major web browsers are approaching full CSS1 support, and robust CSS2 implementations can be seen lurking on the horizon. This is an exciting time to be a designer, and learning CSS now will give you a leg up on the future.

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of one-half em and side margins that are 10% of the width of thebrowser window, you can declare the following, shown in Figure 7-12:

Figure 7-12. Mixed margins

Here, although the top and bottom margins will stay constant in anysituation, the side margins will change based on the width of thebrowser window. This of course assumes that all H1elements are the child of the BODY element andthat BODY is as wide as the browser window. Moreproperly stated, the side margins of H1 elements

All of the advantages of XML outlined so far all make interoperability possible. This is one of the most important requirements for XML, to enable disparate systems to be able to share information easily.

By taking the lowest common denominator approach, by being web enabled, protocol independent, network independent, platform independent and extensible, XML makes it possible for new systems and old systems (that are all different) to communicate with each other. Encoding information in plain text with tags is better than using propietary and platform dependent binary formats.


XML provides solutions for problems that have existed for the past 20 years. With most applications and software services using the Internet as a target platform for deployment, XML could not have come at a better time. With the web becoming so popular, a new paradigm of computing has emerged for which XML supplies one of the most important pieces, platform, vendor and application neutral data. Regardless of the programming language used to process XML, it will enable this new networked computing world.

detailed discussion of line-height and line boxes.


P {line-height: 18pt;}
H2 {line-height: 200%;}
list-styleIE4 P/P IE5 Y/Y NN4 P/P Op3 Y/-

A shorthand property condensing all other list-style properties. It applies to all elements with a display value of list-item ; in ordinary HTML, this is any <LI> element.

below the beginning of the document, or just far enough down to push much of the background image beyond the bottom of the browser window, as shown in Figure 6-53.

Figure 6-53

Figure 6-53. The background image appears too low to be seen fully

Furthermore, even assuming that the background image is initially visible, it always scrolls with the document. Perhaps you don't want to see what Figure 6-54 depicts:

Doing this has two immediate effects, as we can see from Figure 6-55. The first is that the background does not