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A.3. Online Communities

One can read only so much before it comes time to join a discussion and ask some questions. There are two major venues for discussions about CSS, but each is concerned with a specific type of discussion -- so make sure you go to the right place.

A.3.1. comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets

This Usenet group, often abbreviated as ciwas (pronounced "see-wass"), is the gathering place for CSS authors. A number of experts in the field check this newsgroup regularly, this author among them, and all are there for one primary reason: to help new CSS authors over the hurdles that learning any new language will generate. The secondary reason is for the spirited debates that occasionally erupt over some aspect of CSS, or a browser's implementation thereof. Rather unusually for a newsgroup, the signal-to-noise ratio stayed fairly high for the last few years of the 1990s, and will with any luck continue in that vein.

A.3.2. www-style@w3.org

Anyone who wishes to be involved in discussing the future course of CSS, and to clearing up ambiguities in the specifications, should subscribe to this list. The members of the list are all, in one fashion or another, interested in making CSS better than it is already. Please note: www-style is not the place to ask for assistance with writing CSS. For help with CSS authoring problems, visit ciwas instead. Questions beginning with "How do I ... ?" are frowned upon by the regulars of www-style and are usually automatically. This can have unintended effects. Consider the following:

H4 {border-style: dashed solid double;}
H4 {border: medium green;}

This will result in H4 elements having no border at all, because the lack of a border-style in the second rule means that the default value of none will be used. As we've seen, that will turn the border off altogether.

redirected to a more appropriate forum such as ciwas. On the other hand, questions that begin "Why can't I ... ?" or "Wouldn't it be cool if ... ?" are generally welcome, so long as they relate to some ability that appears to be missing from CSS.

Messages to www-style are only accepted if the sender is already subscribed to the list. In order to subscribe, send email to with the word subscribe in the subject of the message; to unsubscribe, send email to with the word unsubscribe in the subject of the message.



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To avoid this sort of thing, and to make sure that H2 elements do not coexist on a line with any floated elements, we use the value both. This value prevents coexistence with floated elements on both sides of the element, as shown in Figure 7-76:

H2 {clear: both;}
Figure 7-76

Figure 7-76. Clear on both sides

If, on the other hand, we're only worried about H2 elements flowing past floated elements to their right, then we'd use H2 {clear: right;}, with the result shown in
Figure 7-77.
Figure 7-77

Figure 7-77. Clear to the right

Example

vertical-alignIE4 P/P IE5 P/Y NN4 N/N Op3 P/-

Used to set the vertical alignment of an element's baseline with respect to its line-height. Negative percentage values are permitted, and will cause the element to be lowered, not raised.

Example

white-spaceIE4 N/N IE5 N/Y NN4 P/P Op3 N/-

This property defines how whitespace within the element is treated. normal acts like traditional web browsers, in that it reduces any sequence ofknow that it should assign a font-weight of bold (or bolder) to B elements. Similar problems can arise when using STRONG, or any other element that would ordinarily call for boldface text.

The solution is simple enough. Just make sure that you set an explicit font-weight for these elements. A good rule to include in your style sheet would be:

possible with images and, in some browsers, tables. CSS, on the otherhand, allows any element to float, from images to paragraphs tolists. In CSS, this behavior is accomplished using the propertyfloat
.

float

For example, to float an image to the right, you could use thismarkup: