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A.3. Online Communities

One can read only so much before it comes time to join a discussion and ask some questions. There are two major venues for discussions about CSS, but each is concerned with a specific type of discussion -- so make sure you go to the right place.

A.3.1. comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets

This Usenet group, often abbreviated as ciwas (pronounced "see-wass"), is the gathering place for CSS authors. A number of experts in the field check this newsgroup regularly, this author among them, and all are there for one primary reason: to help new CSS authors over the hurdles that learning any new language will generate. The secondary reason is for the spirited debates that occasionally erupt over some aspect of CSS, or a browser's implementation thereof. Rather unusually for a newsgroup, the and the border, but otherwise you should get roughly the correct effect.

Nonetheless, if you leave out this statement, every version of Navigator 4.x will not extend the background color throughout the entire content box but will only place it behind the element's text.

signal-to-noise ratio stayed fairly high for the last few years of the 1990s, and will with any luck continue in that vein.


Anyone who wishes to be involved in discussing the future course of CSS, and to clearing up ambiguities in the specifications, should subscribe to this list. The members of the list are all, in one fashion or another, interested in making CSS better than it is already. Please note: www-style is not the place to ask for assistance with writing CSS. For help with CSS authoring problems, visit ciwas instead. Questions beginning with "How do I ... ?" are frowned upon by the regulars of www-style and are usually redirected to a more appropriate forum such as ciwas. On the other hand, questions that begin "Why can't I ... ?" or "Wouldn't it be cool if ... ?" are generally welcome, so long as they relate to some ability that appears to be missing from CSS.

Messages to www-style are only accepted if the sender is already subscribed to the list. In order to subscribe, send email to with the word subscribe in the subject of the message; to unsubscribe, send email to with the word unsubscribe in the subject of the message.

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relative or absolute path.  You can even specify the URL for an image located on another server, which is more honest than stealing a copy but makes your page depend on the other server remaining operational. For better layout control, specify image dimensions, horizontal and vertical padding space (in pixels, 72 pixels/inch),alignment, etc. 
HSPACE=10 VSPACE=5 ALT="Ugly Guy!" SRC="ugly2.gif"> Specifying image dimensions lets the client browser block out the space 

<STYLE TYPE="text/css">@import url(styles.css); /* @import comes first */H1 {color: gray;}</STYLE>

Like LINK, there can be more than one@import statement in a document. UnlikeLINK, however, the style sheets of every@import directive will always be loaded and used.So given the following, all three external style sheets will be right top. When using the position keywords, they can appear in any order, so long as there are no more than two of them, one for the horizontal and the other for the vertical.

Figure 6-37

Figure 6-37. Placing the background image in the top right corner of the browser window

If only one keyword appears, then the other is assumed to be center. Table 6-1 shows equivalent keyword statements.

P {line-height: 14px;}
IMG.up {vertical-align: 50%;}
<P>Some <IMG SRC="tall.gif" alt="tall image">
<IMG SRC="short.gif" CLASS="up" ALT="short image"> text.</P>
Figure 4-43

Figure 4-43. Vertical alignment with percentage and two images

The bottom (or baseline) of the smaller image is raised by one-half (50%) of the line-height, or 7 pixels. If we had set the alignment for IMG.up to be -50%, then the shorter image would have been