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A.3. Online Communities

One can read only so much before it comes time to join a discussion and ask element.

Note that the boldface element in this case is positioned in relation to its parent element's content box, which defines its containing block. Without the relative positioning of the parent element, the containing block would be another element. Consider a case where the element being positioned is a child of the BODY element, e.g., a paragraph or heading element. With the right styles, the containing block for the positioned element will be the entire BODY some questions. There are two major venues for discussions about CSS, but each is concerned with a specific type of discussion -- so make sure you go to the right place.

A.3.1. comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets

This Usenet group, often abbreviated as ciwas (pronounced "see-wass"), is the gathering place for CSS authors. A number of experts in the field check this newsgroup regularly, this author among them, and all are there for one primary reason: to help new CSS authors over the hurdles that learning any new language will generate. The secondary reason is for the spirited debates that occasionally erupt over some aspect of CSS, or a browser's implementation thereof. Rather unusually for a newsgroup, the signal-to-noise ratio stayed fairly high for the last few years of the 1990s, and will with any luck continue in that vein.


Anyone who wishes to be involved in discussing the future course of CSS, and to clearing up ambiguities in the specifications, should subscribe to this list. The members of the list are all, in one fashion or another, interested in making CSS better than it is already. Please note: www-style is not the place to ask for assistance with writing CSS. For help with CSS authoring problems, visit ciwas instead. Questions beginning with "How do I ... ?" are frowned upon by the regulars of www-style and are usually redirected to a more appropriate forum such as ciwas. On the other hand, questions that begin "Why can't I ... ?" or "Wouldn't it be cool if ... ?" are generally welcome, so long as they relate to some ability that appears to be missing from CSS.

Messages to www-style are only accepted if the sender is already subscribed to the list. In order to subscribe, send email to with the word subscribe in the subject of the message; to unsubscribe, send email to with the word unsubscribe in the subject of the message.

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SAX, DOM and XML are very developer friendly because developers are going to decide whether this technology will be adopted by the majority and become a successful effort towards the goal of interoperable, platform, and device independent computing.

XML is web enabled

XML is derived from SGML, and so was HTML. So in essence, the current infrastructure available today to deal with HTML content can be re-used to work with XML. This is a very big advantage towards delivering XML content using the software and networking infrastructure already in place today. This should be a big plus in considering XML for use in any of your projects, because XML naturally lends itself to being used over the web.

Even if clients don't support XML natively, it is not a big hindrance. In fact, Java with Servlets (on the server side) can convert XML with stylesheets to generate plain HTML that can be displayed in all web browsers.

Using XML to pass parameters and return values on servers makes it very easy to allow these servers to be web-enabled. A thin server side Java layer might be added that interacts with web browsers using HTML and translates the requests and responses from the client into XML, that is then fed into the server.



Applies to

all elements

However, this will allow floated elements to appear on the right sideof H2 elements, as shown in Figure 7-75.

Figure 7-75

Figure 7-75. Clear to the left, but not the right

To avoid this sort of thing, and to make sure thatH2 elements do not coexist on a line with anyfloated elements, we use the value both. Thisvalue prevents coexistence with floated elements on both sides of theelement, as shown in Figure 7-76:

elements with the usual blank line between them, as you can see in Figure 7-26. This is because it's adding the zero values to its own default margins.

Figure 7-26

Figure 7-26. Navigator 4.x and margins

If you want to overcome this space, you can always use negative margins. Here's one possible declaration:

H1 {margin-bottom: 0;}
P {margin-top: -1em;}

Only Internet Explorer 4.x/5.x and Opera3.x support @import; Navigator 4.x ignores thismethod of applying styles to a document. This can actually be used toone's advantage in "hiding" styles from thesebrowsers. See Chapter 11, "CSS in Action", for more details.

1.4.4. Actual Styles